Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art for Everyone




What follows is a guest post by Tony Chackal.

Ever wonder why people prefer vinyl records over digital formats? Are they just snobs who fetishize vintage culture or elitists overly concerned with being hip? Are vinyl enthusiasts backward-looking in resisting contemporary technology? Maybe. But there are other substantial reasons to prefer vinyl to digital formats that may account for recent rebounds in vinyl sales. In this piece, I’ll highlight what I think they are.

The two central categories of recorded musical technology are analog and digital. Digital listening formats are immaterial, and so offer conveniences of portability, efficiency, and expediency. Vinyl records are material, occupy space, need to be properly stored, and require more engagement to operate. The fact that vinyl records are material allows distinctive features to be appreciated and evaluated, which are unavailable in digital formats. Let’s call this “the vinyl condition”. I think the vinyl condition offers beneficial differences in listening to recorded music. The sound is warmer, richer, and deeper. Beyond sound, the vinyl condition offers a larger number of features to be appreciated and evaluated. These include tactile, visual, and epistemic features. While a range of benefits and drawbacks exist in both analog and digital formats, I think vinyl records are preferable to digital formats because the sound is better and the overall aesthetic experience is wider and richer.

I want to underscore that by widening the framework of discussion to include other features beyond sound, I aim to avoid the overly simplistic debate about mere auditory differences between analog and digital formats. I outline four features of the vinyl condition: auditory, tactile, visual, and epistemic. My aim is (1) to highlight what is absent in the aesthetic experience of listening to music through digital formats and equipment, and (2) to refute the idea that vinyl enthusiasts are mere snobs using outdated technology just for the sake of being cool.

Two notes about technology

Let’s observe two running principles in philosophy of technology held by figures like Martin Heidegger, Albert Borgmann, and Herbert Marcuse.

1) Technology concerns means-end relationships and is social activity.
Technology involves instruments used for purposes to achieve ends or goals. For example, the turntable is designed to play records and it achieves its purpose when it does so. Technology is social activity in that the ends achieved involve needs and wants of social existence. That someone uses a turntable reflects perhaps a human need to consume music, and an individual’s particular preference for vinyl. Listening to music is social when done with others, but also in the general sense of being socially produced art communicating something between musician and listener.

2) Changes in technology produce changes in social activity.
One might think that new technologies just offer novel ways to do the same things humans have always done, and while they might make activities more efficient, convenient, and expedient, these are only peripheral aspects that do not change the nature of activity itself. But philosophers discuss how these seemingly peripheral aspects may actually change the very nature of the activity. For example, the advent of recorded music technology via Edison’s phonograph changed musical listening as a social activity. Whereas before, music would be heard during live performance, rendering it transient, place-based, and time-dependent, recording technology and formats allowed people to bring music into their homes, and to have songs “present-at-hand” (as Heidegger says) in the standing reserves of their collections. Music could now be heard in one’s home, at one’s leisure; songs could be played in the order one wished; and sound elements such as bass and treble could be adjusted at the direction of the listener.

Not only did recording technology change how music was consumed, it also changed how music was produced. Music would now be written with the studio in mind, anticipating various differences arising between performing and recording. This changed, for example, the lengths of songs, often rendering them shorter, as well as offering opportunities for overdubbing, editing, and mixing so that certain sounds were foregrounded and others backgrounded. Benjamin and Adorno bemoaned the changes that recorded music introduced by claiming that it displaced the authenticity, aura, and authority of music as a live art form. I think the contemporary comparison should not be between recorded and live music, but rather between different formats of recorded music. While there are a number of analog formats—vinyl records, cassette tapes, and even CDs although typically digitally recorded are material—I treat vinyl records as the paradigmatic example. And while there are distinctions within digital formats, I use the term to cover MP3s and other digital lossy files and streaming services. In the next four sections, I discuss the distinctive auditory, tactile, visual, and epistemic features that arise from the vinyl condition.

Auditory features

Because of their materiality, records offer sound qualities that digital formats do not. These include warmth, richness, and depth. Many people value those qualities and so hold vinyl records to sound better than digital formats. Much needs to be said to support this claim. First, I’ll define these terms.


Warmth arises in records precisely because they are analog, and it refers to a material quality of sound occurring when physical instruments are played. It occurs because the record is an empirical object being played by a turntable and channeled through surrounding equipment. That turntables are instruments in themselves is seen in the movement of turntabilism, which is essentially the art of scratching and mixing records. There is general warmth to virtually all analog instruments. Just as analog photography and film each carry distinctive visual warmth, seen most pointedly when compared to digital counterparts, so to do vinyl records, which is also most recognizable when compared to digital formats. Because digital formats are compressed lossy files and are not played by a physical instrument upon a physical format in the same sense that a record is by the needle on the stylus, on the arm of the turntable, through a receiver and speaker set, then this quality of warmth is absent in digital formats. To be sure, the sound of vinyl carries additional warmth when recorded through analog rather than digital technology.

Richness refers to the diversity of auditory aspects heard in vinyl records. Because of record grooves, the sound of vinyl is more open, allowing a greater quantity of features to be heard. The space afforded by the grooves allows one to locate and individuate particular instruments and sounds and observe how they contribute to the music as a whole. This way, diversity can be heard.

Whereas richness refers to the greater quantity of sound, depth refers to the greater quality of sound. Depth is afforded by the resonant quality of records arising from grooves on its physical format. Depth refers to how much of a sound or instrument can be heard. Depth can be recognized in records when comparing its sound to that of digital formats, which, because they are compressed files, preclude a certain depth from being heard. It’s key to note that the sound limitations in digital formats almost always concern the compression at their nature.

While analog defenders attest to the warmth, richness, and depth of the sound of records, many digital apologists contest this. One reason is that the debate between analog and digital technology is typically focused on recording technologies, not listening technologies. Sound differences arising from recording technologies are essential to the analog-digital debate, but those arising from listening technologies must also be included. Additionally, the sound quality of the format must be treated as one among a variety of distinctive features arising from the materiality of the vinyl condition and its associated equipment. Furthermore, digital apologists think that digital formats can have warmth, richness, and depth if heard through the right equipment. I’ll address these concerns by first introducing the formats and then contextualizing them within their contexts of equipment.


There are paradigmatic differences between the sound quality of vinyl records and digital formats. The former tends to be deeper, richer, warmer, and of a more rounded quality. The latter tends to be more clean, polished, and slick, of a more trebly, high-end quality. The sound of vinyl records arises because the grooves on the record allow for an open, resonant quality. Conversely, digital formats by their nature compress sound, disallowing the open space that allows the warmth, richness, and depth to arise. Often this debate becomes paralyzed when cast in terms of “accuracy”. Digital apologists argue that because digitization utilizes binary code, numerical precision provides a more accurate sound of the master recording onto the format. For now, I avoid this framework of numerical accuracy because it is solely focused on auditory qualities. Instead, I highlight how the vinyl condition allows a wider artistic platform and richer aesthetic experience that includes auditory, tactile, visual, and epistemic features.

Philosophers like Heidegger highlight that any given technological instrument must be situated within a context of equipment because contexts render instruments functional and coherent, useful and meaningful. Equipment includes other technological instruments and their collaboration to achieve ends, and also language, conventions, and procedures that are employed in using technologies. To claim that either records or MP3s alone are superior in sound quality is problematic in lacking context. The context for vinyl records is the stationary home stereo, including the turntable, receiver, and speakers. The paradigmatic equipment for digital formats is the smart device or personal computer, and earbuds. In either case, quality of sound will be determined as much by the equipment as a whole, not the format alone. Certainly, there are cheap and often portable record players with poor sound quality, and there are records that have so much content that sound quality is compromised (it’s optimal to not exceed 20 minutes on each side of a 12-inch). While some digital format listeners have high quality home stereo systems and other audiophile technologies, this is not paradigmatic.

The equipment of vinyl includes the record and its condition, the quality of the turntable and stylus, the power and watts per channel of the receiver, and the size and strength of the speakers. Even speaker placement and size of speaker wire can produce differences in sound. While there are high quality headphones, most people listen to digital formats through earbuds, car stereos, computer speakers, or desktop speakers. Because earbuds are small and aim to bring music to one’s head, there is no space for sound to resonate and gain warmth, richness, and depth arising from the acoustics of the speaker box (along with the record grooves). Nor is there the extra power and style that arises from particular collaborations of receiver, speakers, and turntable. The equipment as a whole enables the warm, rich, deep sound to arise. Let’s call this triad “fecundity”. From these considerations, I cash out two claims. First, there are differences in sound quality of vinyl records and digital formats, which arise because of the paradigmatic equipment of each. Second, because records utilize material grooves and are used with high quality equipment and digital formats are by their essence compressed and are used with lower quality equipment, the former can have fecundity while the latter cannot. If records have fecundity of sound, and if fecundity is preferable, then vinyl records are the better format.

Tactile features

The tactility of the vinyl condition is the most obvious feature arising from its materiality. Records are physical and so occupy particular place and time. They are stored on shelves, removed from sleeves, and placed on turntables. Aside from the actual vinyl disc, there are various other physical parts to a record’s packaging. Let’s distinguish these parts from outer to inner. Polybags are the plastic sleeves that house records. Jackets are the outer sleeves typically made of cardstock and on which the front and back album artwork resides. The spine is the jacket’s side opposite its opening, where names of musicians or groups are printed. The inner sleeve, or dust sleeve, is the paper or plastic in which the record disc resides. Inserts are anything included in the jacket, such as lyric sheets, booklets, stickers, patches, zines, stencils, post cards, CDs, DVDs, or 7-inch records. Labels are the paper circles at the center of the record. Finally, inscriptions are etched into the vinyl disc at the record’s center as a unique alphanumeric code. Each of these physical aspects is part of the tactility of the aesthetic experience. Crucially, they are additional spaces of opportunity for artwork.

The tactility offers physical engagement as part of the aesthetic experience. Collectors store and handle vinyl with care, for example by avoiding dust and fingerprints. Jackets are removed from polybags, inner sleeves from jackets, and vinyl from inner sleeves. The inserts invite the collector to engage them—to read the lyric sheet, to apply the sticker, to gaze at the artwork. A collector touches, removes, places, flips, inserts, and peruses various material aspects of the packaging. In this way, records aren’t merely owned and heard, they are felt and engaged.


sandpaper jacket of The Return of Durutti Column

Consider The Rolling Stones 1971 Sticky Fingers album, designed by Andy Warhol. The cover depicted the crotch of a man clad in denim replete with an actual zipper that could be moved up and down to reveal the inside picture on the inner sleeve of a similar crotch now presented in only white briefs. The zipper allows the collector to engage it physically, to pull it up and down and enjoy a material relationality that accompanies the musical listening experience. Yet most collectors likely do this only once when first procuring the record to ensure it works, after which they would be keen to keep the jacket in mint condition. Still, this artwork, engagement, and interaction are unavailable in digital formats. Or consider also the Durutti Column’s 1980 debut, The Return of the Durutti Column, which was packaged in a sandpaper jacket that would ruin the sleeve art of any records shelved next to it. This was influenced by Guy Debord’s 1959 situationist art book Mémoires, designed by Asger Jorn, which did the same. The Rolling Stones and Durutti Column cases demand that the collector take some precautionary measures. I, for one, use three extra polybags for each album to ensure that the zipper and sandpaper do not harm other records.

The jacket itself can come in distinct shapes. Consider Public Image Ltd.’s 1979 album, Metal Box, which refers to its packaging (designed by Dennis Morris): a metal, 16-millimeter film canister embossed with the band’s logo and housing three 12-inch records. It remains one of the most unique album designs of all time. Or consider Pylon’s 1981 album Chomp, which depicted a Tyrannosaurus Rex. The top of the jacket bared serrated edges to suggest the dinosaur and bitten into it. One is invited to lightly rub their finger across to feel the sharpness of the points. The tactility generally allows for the other distinctive auditory, visual, and epistemic features to arise.

Visual features


There are also many visual aspects to the vinyl condition. Typically, there is artwork on the front and back of the jacket. Some covers become timeless, pervasive cultural images, such as Joy Division’s Unknown Pleasures, designed by Peter Saville. The jackets may be gatefold, i.e. they may unfold or open like a book, and may reveal a large image across the entire unfolded jacket, such as the inner image of lightning-faced David Bowie in Aladdin Sane (pictured above). There is also artwork on inner sleeves, as well as anything inserted in the jacket. Additionally, the polybag may also be used as a canvas. The Allah-Las place signature logo sticker artwork on theirs, for example. Sometimes the inner sleeves are also the lyric sheets or where inner artwork is placed. The label offers yet another opportunity for artwork. In soul 45s of the 1960s and ’70s, often there were no jackets or inserts, but only inner sleeves and labels. This allowed Motown, for example, to develop specially printed inner sleeves with their logo, although this was an exception rather than the rule. Typically, the label itself was the place for visual features, which gave rise to distinct graphic design of text and logos for labels. It could also be used to host images, such as a picture of James Brown’s head on many of his 45s.


There is copious opportunity for artwork as inserts. There are whole sheets that may contain lyrics and photographs. Faust included a series of 10×10-inch photographs as inserts in their second record, Faust So Far. The vinyl itself can even be a work of art. There is the standard black vinyl, but also a variety of colored vinyl records. There are solid colors, as well as marbled, two-toned, or multi-colored records. Importantly, there are also picture discs, such as CAN’s “I Want More” EP. The shape of vinyl can also be manipulated from the standard circle, such as Lovelife’s 2002 heart-shaped vinyl EP. Clinic’s 2010 album Bubblegum included a gatefold jacket housing a black LP, a second pink 12-inch with acoustic versions, a lyric sheet, and also a stencil. The gatefold calls the listener to open it, the colored vinyl motivates an aesthetic gaze, and the stencil encourages one to make a print or spray a shirt.

Epistemic features

Epistemic features concern knowledge and what is needed for it. There is typically a bevy of information inscribed on discs and sleeves. This includes information about the artist, musicians, producer, recording studio, date recorded, label, lyrics, shout-outs, number of pressings, and so on. While this information is often available digitally, it arises not from the format as such, but from internet access generally. Consequently, the information often does not call to listeners, since they have to take extra measures to see it. When present on the record and sleeve, the information announces itself more loudly and transparently. As many philosophers have argued, more information often leads to an enhanced understanding of artworks, and some knowledge is even necessary to understand an artwork’s meaning. Listeners’ aesthetic experiences are benefited by the transparency of information.

Vinyl records often contain obscure information that is either not obvious or simply unavailable with digital formats. Musicians may add to the alphanumeric inscriptions at the record’s center by etching messages, slogans, and even inside jokes. Knowing the information above—about, say, an album’s producer, production studio, or musicians—can add value to one’s appreciation and evaluation. For example, there are producers who make considerable impacts on albums, such as Brian Eno, Martin Hannet, and Lee Perry. Knowing that allows listeners to appreciate what producers contribute and to recognize their particular style.


I’ve tried to show that vinyl records and associated equipment offer certain features of appreciation and evaluation that are unavailable in digital formats. Auditory features are warmer, richer, and deeper, and there are also tactile, visual, and epistemic features that expand the artistic platform and enrich the aesthetic experience. People prefer vinyl for these reasons and others, not merely to be snobby, vintage, or hip for its own sake, or to eschew contemporary technology. Rather, enthusiasts enjoy spinning and being spun by vinyl, like a record, right round, round round.

Notes on the Contributor
Tony Chackal is a philosophy instructor at Slippery Rock University. He works on issues at the intersection of environmental philosophy, political philosophy, and aesthetics, and has published on food, street art and illegality, and the nature of our relationships to our environments. He DJs regularly, of course on vinyl. You can also follow him on Instagram (@thevinylcondition).

Edited by Alex King
All photos courtesy of the author


  1. You argue that vinyl records are superior to digital forms of music, and that there are important qualities absent from these digital forms. You hold the position that vinyl records have superior auditory, tactile, visual (artwork), and epistemic features compared to digital musical formats, and that enjoyers of vinyl records are not simply in it for the aesthetic. You stated that vinyl records have a superior warmth, richness, and depth not present in digital music. You mentioned that the physical aspects of vinyl records, such as labels, jackets, and inserts, provide a deeper connection compared to simply pressing play on digital. The artwork on vinyl records, you said, is also of value. And, last but certainly not least, you discussed that properly caring for and using vinyl records requires a certain amount of knowledge, and that there is also a relay of information between artist and user that adds to the experience of vinyl records- of course, this care is far more extensive than care for digital music, which often needs little to no knowledge at all to operate.

    While I agree with your position, and can see why you chose to argue in favor of vinyl specifically, I do think there is something about digital music you should consider. You mentioned in your notes about technology that the introduction of Edison’s phonograph made music into a social activity, as it was then “present-at-hand”. While vinyl records fall into this “present-at-hand” category, it remains that digital music is, at times, even more available, and I feel that there is something to be said about that. I think that part of what makes music so special is its association with certain moments in our lives. Having music readily available at specific times, say, for example, during a car ride with a friend, is part of what, in my opinion, makes it so valuable and meaningful. Personally, I think I would have a hard time keeping a record player in my car- and I know there are CDs, but those still would not have quite the same qualities you described that we find in vinyl records (although maybe the CDs being physical is your counterargument right there). I just thought this was something you could maybe think about/address.

    Nice work,
    N. Pierce


  2. Your argument holds that the vinyl experience is better than the digital one based on having distinct qualities that are more preferable. These qualities take shape in the “vinyl condition”, outlined by the following features: auditory, tactile, visual, and epistemic. On auditory, you stated that the vinyl experience provides warmth, richness, and depth that isn’t present in digital music and provides a greater listening experience. On tactile, you pointed out that vinyl takes physical space and has physical qualities that can be admired by the viewer, such as the jacket. The jacket takes on a visual feature, providing viewers with interesting artwork and details missing from the digital experience. Finally, you mentioned there is a certain amount of knowledge required to own and care for vinyl, making ownership much more meaningful than that of digital files that require little knowledge to obtain or maintain.

    I’ve never listened to a vinyl album (sorry Dr. Chackal), so I can’t personally testify for any improvements upon the auditory experience found in the vinyl condition. Although, as an artist, I’d agree that albums having improved tactile and visual qualities is a great appeal for why people would be interested in vinyl. Personally, I enjoy using CDs when possible, which is mostly while driving. CDs provide me with a sense of ownership and nostalgia that digital music doesn’t. Also, a CD provides me with easy access to the whole album in order, which I believe is the proper way to listen to music. Although, I’d have to agree with Pierce’s point that music is also a social experience, and an aux can provide a greater bond between friends than sitting around a record player. Yet, to elaborate, I think there is certain music that is meant to be listened to digitally, such as EDM and some newer rap music, all of which are made digitally. Although I’m sure you know more than me on the subject, I thought these would be points to consider.

    Stay Snobby,
    M. Griffith


  3. You argue that vinyl is better than digital. Your argument includes qualities that you have named the “vinyl condition” which includes auditory, tactile, visual, and epistemic. Although the digital experience offers conveniences that vinyl does not, such as portability, efficiency, and expediency, you argue that the advantages of vinyl outweigh these qualities. You stated that records offer better sound qualities that digital does not. Warmth, richness, and depth are lost in digital and they provide a better listening experience. You stated that vinyl is material and takes up space, and it has physical qualities such as labels, jackets, and inserts making it more engaging than digital. As for visual, it provides people with artwork which is missing from the digital experience. Lastly, you argued that knowledge and information about the music and artist are readily available on discs as opposed to digital. With digital, one must do research to gather information that is already provided on records.

    I do agree with you that records are more material and something you can engage with. When I was little, we had a turntable and a collection of records. It was fun playing them, watching them spin, and occasionally we would get yelled at by my dad for scratching one of the records by trying to play it backwards haha. A drawback to consider would be how easily records can get damaged. Even the way it is stored can cause damage, so is it easier to keep digital music free of damage as opposed to records? I don’t own any records now, which I guess means I “prefer” digital (easily available, hassle-free, etc), but I do have to agree that it does sound different than digital. I don’t think the sound is flawless and better/worse than digital, but there is something “cool” about playing records. It’s like there is a live band playing in your house which gives it a unique experience. I think you provided a good argument for vinyl over digital, so, nice work!

    B. Kramer


  4. What you have described in your argument was that listening to music on vinyl is a much better experience than listening to music digitally. You brought up the auditory features, which bring to life the warmth, richness, and depth of the music by vinyl. Tactile features that you included showed that it makes it more engaging to own vinyl since you have a physical copy in your hands of one of your favorite pieces of music. You also talked about visual features that are incorporated throughout the vinyl packaging that makes it timeless and cultural to own, and epistemic features were mentioned as well, which give the listener more information and knowledge about the artist or music that they are listening to.

    I do agree that the auditory features of vinyl are superior to that of digital, but as for the other features that you spoke of, digit out-weighs vinyl in my opinion. Tactile features almost seem negative in a way since vinyl requires much more care since the records and turntables need a space to be stored and can be damaged easily unlike digital music. It’s also fun to be in the car with friends having everyone sharing the aux, and playing music they found that no one has listened to yet, which I feel couldn’t happen with vinyl since people don’t just carry records around with them all the time, nor do people keep turntables in their cars. Also, buying multiple records can get pricey when compared to free streaming services that allow you to listen to anything immediately. As for visual features, nowadays, artists put out so much merchandise per album (t-shirts, posters, stickers, etc.) that there are many more ways to have something physical from that piece of music. However, having the sound of vinyl in a room is always a different experience, and I guess isn’t that why we’re listening in the first place.

    P. Anundson


  5. Based upon the claim, “Vinyl is better than digital,” you had posed the affirmative position with evidence of having several additional qualities that the digital format would not permit. These arguments include the auditory, tactile, visual, and epistemic pros of the vinyl. The auditory argument offers three main characteristics that are more preferable that are superior to the auditory features of a digital: warmth, richness, and depth. Next, the tactile argument offers one thing that the digital could not offer: physicality. Never will one ever be able to hold digital music in the way a vinyl could be held. With this being said, the physicality becomes more nostalgic, memorable, and gives the vinyl a sense of “higher importance.” Similarly, the visual argument goes hand-in-hand to the tactile argument. However, the visual leaves room for even interactive aspects of the vinyl as well as looking at the vinyl from an artistic view. Therefore, for a vinyl you gain more than just a vinyl itself. You have obtained art, music, and a new way to think of the music in its own, catering to the aesthetic of the vinyl as well. Finally, the epistemic argument offers an intellectual appeal to the readers. At this point, the reader has captured the ideal that the vinyl offers far, far more than the digital in physicality. You often buy into the vinyl not only for the vinyl but for everything else that is included in a vinyl purchase. For these reasons, the claim “Vinyl is better than digital” was well supported as well as refuting the idea that the aesthetic is only one of many reasons that people may prefer the vinyl.

    I believe that the vinyl may have several pros; however, there are some potential questions to think about from the negative position: (1) Can digital create a social connection between musician and listener too? (MTV?) (2) Would you suggest that using the words, “aesthetic experience” could potentially refute your own refutation, “vinyl enthusiasts are mere snobs using outdated technology just for the sake of being cool?” (3) Does the digital music offer more diversity, exposure, and access to more music? Additionally, a more powerful argument may be posed by defining what “better” is referring to. I believe a rebuttal in its own section would be beneficial to rule out more arguments and define “better.”
    Could you potentially rule out arguments such as the digital format’s price, access, or why more digital copies are sold. Finally, a stronger argument may be posed by searching more of the digital format. For example, “To claim that either records or MP3s alone are superior in sound quality is problematic in lacking context. The context for vinyl records is the stationary home stereo, including the turntable, receiver, and speakers.” May be strengthened by some research of how these systems operate in comparison to the vinyl since it will most likely support the affirmative position.

    M. Perozzi


  6. In this piece, you argue why vinyl is to be preferred over digital formats. You maintain your position in saying that vinyl records have superior auditory, tactile, visual, and epistemic features in comparison to those of digital formats. Those who prefer vinyl over digital formats are not merely snobby, hip, individuals who fetishize vintage culture. While digital formats offer the conveniences of portability, efficiency, and expediency, vinyl offers a superior quality of warmth, richness, and depth that digital formats cannot provide. To further support the superiority of the vinyl, arguments describing characteristics of this form of analog such as the components, artwork, and caretaking were provided. Vinyl forces listeners more so than digital formats to appreciate and evaluate aspects of the music.

    I strongly agree with the argument within this piece, vinyl is superior to digital formats. The first album I ever got and listened to was: The Beach Boys Pet Sounds. Since then, my mediocre collection has expanded all the way from Dean Martin Welcome To My World to Jethro Tull A Passion Play. While you touched on many important aspects of the superiority of vinyl, I feel that some were left out. The unique artwork, designs, and special feature that are included along with a vinyl make vinyl itself extremely appealing collectively. Half the fun of appreciating vinyl is creating your own collection, which can also offer a deeper understanding of the artists, producers, etc. Collecting can add an extra hint of nostalgia and meaning to the music. A certain vinyl can remind one of the time they bought it, in so doing an entire collection can create a timeline of emotions and experiences within a person’s life. Another point I feel should be touched on is the quality of the unique experience of listening to an album all the way through in the order that it was produced. When an album is produced, or at least a decent album is produced, one of the goals of the album is to create a feeling, story, or message. With this being said, if the artist and producers were trying to achieve one of these goals, chances are the album is to be heard all the way through in the order they chose and was produced. By listening to vinyl, being able to have this experience welcomes a deeper understanding to the music, because the goal of the artist and producers can become more apparent and clear. Overall, I too believe that vinyl provides one with a deeper appreciation, understanding, and knowledge of music as a whole over digital formats.


  7. I really enjoyed reading this. You have made many interesting points concerning the values of the “vinyl condition” by outlining auditory, tactile, visual and the epistemic features they posses. Features ranging from the warmth, richness, and depth that comes from how the vinyl record is specifically played with physical instruments. These qualities also assist in hearing a greater quantity of music or features and this also contributes to a greater quality of sound. You go on to explain how vinyl offers more than just an enhanced auditory performance. In addition to that they offer an aesthetic experience along with it by being a material form that comes with physical features, which is something a digital anything just cannot offer. You explain these physical features as the vinyl itself, jackets, inserts, labels, inner sleeves, and even the spine of the album. These things taking up time and space but in a good way. A tangible way. You explain the artwork on the jacket and even the vinyl itself is a work of art, not to mention all the other interesting things the artist can add for the listener such as the information inscribed on the discs and sleeves adding to the listeners understanding of the artists work. You certainly brought forward all the vinyl conditions best qualities.
    Let me start out by saying this was very interesting for me to read so thank you. My mom also collects records and has multiple record players. Not only that but I used to dance at a preprofessional ballet company and any of the music they played whether for warmups or live performances such as ‘The Nutcracker’ was ALWAYS played from records. Only very rarely when a guest choreographer would come in did we dance to anything from a digital device and when we did the music was not as powerful or as fun to dance to by any means. So, I am lucky enough to be able to say I have heard the difference firsthand.
    The more I read your blog though the more I started to wonder if the two should be compared at all. They both offer a user listening experience, but they are just so different in so many ways. Personally, I love to collect things, so I enjoy materialized things far more than anything digital (I don’t use computers to take notes, I prefer books to kindles, etc.) I enjoy things I can touch and feel like I own. Digital anything does not seem as safe as something physical. Records and anything that goes with them like the turntable, stylus, speakers, the artwork, inserts, jackets and the vinyl taking up space are all things that are appealing to me. These things can not be deleted, if you own it, it is yours to use when and how you want. You asked the Question “Are vinyl enthusiasts backward-looking in resisting contemporary technology?” I don’t really think so. Vinyl did appear a long time ago, but it just seems like a different way to enjoy music. It adds to the options of today. You don’t have to choose between vinyl and digital, we can use both if we wish to. They technically both achieve a means to an end. It all depends on what an individual’s preference is. If you want warmth, depth, and richness and a more unique experience vinyl is the way to go. If you aren’t concerned with that or you like the polished versions of songs for driving or when you are out away from home digital works.
    The way you explained the vinyl condition it sounds like owning, playing, and taking care of a vinyl collection is in fact an art. Contrary to what a previous commenter wrote whom said digital is more of a way to engage with friends or a more social way of listening to music. It might be in some ways but if you invite people over who enjoy vinyl or are teaching someone about them you probably get more of a musical social experience because to play the record you have to concentrate on what you are doing and really be in the moment with the music and people around you who are enjoying it. Vinyl is more mindful way of listening to music. It’s more of a present listening than a passive listening like digital tends to be. Digital has become the expected almost automatic way to listen to music. It has become so convenient, you can get any song, anytime, anywhere without taking up physical space. But we live in a distracted world as it is so when we plug in to our digital devices the music just naturally becomes part of the background, like when you listen to music while driving, or when you stream games and have music playing, or are exercising to it. It is not very often the “main” activity when you are streaming from a digital device. The technology has made it more accessible but less predominant at the same time. The music from a digital device is not the experience like the relationship between someone and their vinyl.
    Vinyl has it’s draw backs when they degrade or ware out over time after multiple uses. This will lower the quality of the sound. Just as the record wares out so does the turntables which is an inconvenience and can become expensive. Vinyl is also very fragile. It’s true too that vinyl cannot contain the same amount of data that a digital file can, and it has less dynamic range. However, that wasn’t what vinyl was made for so that’s a moot point. Another drawback for some might be you would need a record of every single album you would want to listen to but if you are a collector you wouldn’t mind this.
    I don’t really feel like comparing the two is fair because they are both so different. Some people would enjoy the epistemic features that a vinyl has to offer while others might not care or take the time to look. Digital does not offer upfront epistemic value as you said unless you look it up. I feel like the people that do look it up would be the ones interested in the vinyl condition. Again, things like this take time and not many people sadly like to take that time. Artists now a days try to express the whys, how’s, and what’s on social media because more people are likely to watch a video than look it up and read. My own opinion is I think vinyl is better in numerous ways but it’s for people willing to put in the time and effort for a more fulfilling experience. In the distracted society we live in today where most of everyone wants things done quickly and right now digital fits into the day and age a little better. It seems to be superior in this generation in terms of convenience but not in sound.

    Sorry for the extended response. I really enjoyed this,

    Alexis Ryan.


  8. In this article, you explain a theory called the “vinyl condition,” which shows how vinyl is better than digital. You explain how this is due to many factors including auditory, tactile, visual, and epistemic features. A record’s warmth, richness and depth sets vinyl apart from streaming music digitally. The tactile feature explains how you not only can listen to music on a vinyl but you also get to hold the vinyl, which is great for collectors or people who want to display their music taste. The visual features, like the art on the cover, is also very attractive to consumers. The epistemic feature is that a vinyl has information about the album, the artist, producer and etc. This quality is great because having knowledge about a piece of art can help someone understand it more.

    I do agree with many points in this piece, however I hope I can give you a new outlook to why digital can sometimes be better than vinyl, especially based on the genre and goal of the artist. Not every artist wants to be rich and warm, in fact with my voice major I have spent years trying to be bright and light. I collect records and have for a while, even though my record player is probably the crappiest one possible, I genuinely appreciate vinyl and listen to them often. One of my favorite parts of listening to records is that I don’t need my phone to change the music. Which, during homework especially, I will go to change the song (usually lo-fi hip hop during homework) and boom, I see a Twitter notification and I somehow end up on Twitter for a half hour. With a record, I put one on and it plays through, without having to use my phone to adjust volume, change the song, etc. My main point would be that it depends on what genre you are listening to and that vinyl is not always better than digital and vise versa. For example, my record collection started with Alanis Morrissette’s (my favorite artist) “Jagged Little Pill”, (my favorite album.) Her voice is raw and rich, the crackle of the vinyl compliments her well and that’s when I fell in love with vinyl. I still, when I just want to cry or write, put this record on. Then I added Amy Winehouse, Lana Del Rey, Marina and the Diamonds, (clearly I have a type.) All have raspy, rich tones. While at Jerry’s Records I found a record containing Judy Garland’s Hits. It was named something like that. Even though the vinyl complimented the retro sounds, it didn’t compliment her voice. She is bright and agile, which I love, but the vinyl took away from her songbird-like voice. Then, for my birthday a friend got me Kendrick Lamar’s “DAMN.” My friends and I often bonded by smoking (sorry) and listening to records in my friend Aidan’s basement. This was when I truly realized that not every album should be listened to on record. “DAMN” just sounded way better on digital. It was definitely cool to hear and display but it just didn’t have the same powerful effect. However, I have a lot of genres that I prefer on record like 90s, Musical Theatre, SOME operas and most importantly, jazz. I usually only listen to live recordings of Frank Sinatra, Billie Holiday and Ella. You can get a similar effect by listening to them on vinyl. I said some operas because if its a bright, airy soprano, I don’t want to hear a rich crackle tone. I want to hear her raw in an opera house or on a perfected recording. But, I love hearing low altos in operas as well as men on vinyl. It gives an eerie, vintage feel. Some aesthetic benefits to streaming digitally is being able to share what you’re listening to with a screenshot on social media. Also, I have a love for trippy music videos. A lot of songs have psychedelic music videos that help you really feel the song with all your senses. About being snobby, I disagree. I think showing appreciation for old things is great, who cares if its trendy.

    Taylor Searle


  9. In your piece you argue that Vinyl Records are of higher superior and of more value than digital formats. You label this as the “Vinyl Condition”. Throughout the text you describe the differences between Vinyl records and digital formats through use of certain distinctions between the two. You describe how the Vinyl records are material, makes your experience wider and richer, and have more features that are offered to be appreciated as to digital formats that are portable, and compress sound. You state how with Vinyl records there is more to be appreciated, like the warmer, richer, and deeper sound affects. With Vinyl records you list some benefits that digital formats lack, like the diversity of sound and the ability to hear each instrument individually, while using physical instruments rather than edited audio. Also, you cover how the records include more physical engagement, giving more appreciation towards the music. You list the visual features as well as the epistemic features. Visual features consisting of the labels, jackets and the sleeves, more to admire about the record rather than a digital format with no visual. Epistemic features consisting of the knowledge/background information on the specific piece you are listening too, which is handy to have information right in front of your eyes rather than having to research on the web. Lastly, the knowledge it takes to properly care for one of these records and the steps to playing one. It definitely takes more effort to play a record that just pressing play on a digital format.
    I really enjoyed this piece, I’m not very familiar with records, but this piece gave me a new insight to the topic and learned some really good points between records vs. digital formats. Although I agree with a lot of the points presented, like the value, physical engagement, and the unique parts of the record, myself personally put more use into digital formats. I believe the reason is just like you presented at the beginning is because they are portable and don’t take much time to operate. I feel as though it is because it’s an easy way to listen to music while you’re out and about and still gives you the opportunity to appreciate and enjoy the music even when you don’t have the ability to play records on the go. I really enjoyed the framework of this piece and the order you chose to present your ideas, it was very easy to follow and interesting at the same time. I feel like you covered points necessary for this topic and did very well at making it clear and to the point, while fully explaining the topic presented.


  10. First off, I really enjoyed reading this article because I’m not very familiar with records. After reading this, I can see why you feel the way you feel about vinyl. You write this article to argue that vinyl is a better source of music than digital formats. In the article, you argue there are four major aspects of a vinyl record which include auditory, tactile, visual and epistemic. Starting with auditory, you say vinyl gives off a feeling of richness, warmth and depth which is not shown as strongly in a digital format. Next, you argue about tactile. You say that a vinyl record takes up more space and has more significant meaning such as a personal item. You then argue that a vinyl record has a better visual presentation than a digital format of music. You give examples such as graphic designs and logos for labels. Lastly, you talk about how information is more easily accessible in the sleeves or on the disk of a vinyl record. Unlike a vinyl record, you have to take extra steps to find information on the music or artist you are listening to while using a digital format.
    Personally, I have never listened to a vinyl record not because I did not want to but because I never had access to one. You make some good points about vinyl records, I can agree there. The only thing I could think of that vinyl does not have it easy accessibility. Even though have never listened to a vinyl record, after reading this article, I can agree that it is better than a digital format of music. I can also say that a digital format of music can provide a warmth feeling depending on what kind of device you are listening on. After reading this article, I am more than interested in finally listening to a vinyl record!
    – m knezevich


    • Jake Pollak
      In the article the writer expressed a strong opinion on how vinyl is a more complete sound and form of music compared digital music. Throughout the review topics including auditory, tactile, visual and epistemic to further push the theory that vinyl is a more sustainable form of music. The writer explains that when listening on a turntable it has a better sound because of the material and openness of the music. Saying it sounded, “richer, warmer, and more rounded quality”. Additionally, when you have a record it comes with art as vinyl have developed from dull to expressionism through time. Another feature that was important is the epistemic because it shows that when you have access to a vinyl you get perks like song titles, producers, writers, and more. He adds, “While this information is often available digitally, it arises not from the format as such, but from internet access generally.” Overall, the writer exemplified many features of the vinyl being inherently a better form of music.
      Prior to reading the article I was biased because throughout my life I have slowly developed the habit of collecting vinyl. As I read I agreed that the form of music in vinyl provides many aspects of the true nature of music. The vinyl has always appealed to me because of how prevalent it has stayed throughout history, especially with the formation of digital music. Although, I believe that digital music has a large impact and is developed in a format where you can have access to achieving acknowledgement of their own music and access to much more music. Lastly, I believe that vinyl has a chance of making a larger return in the future because I believe that the world consistently is becoming a larger platform of people expressing themselves how they want to.


  11. This article lays out a compelling argument for the superiority of vinyl over modern digital music. The four features of vinyl that allow it to eclipse digital music, auditory, tactile, visual, and epistemic, all show the unique features of records that are not present in modern listening. The richness, warmth, and depth of the music on a vinyl record is absent in audio files, which are more hollow in their sound. The tactile features of a record set it apart from digital media in that the music is no longer abstract. One can hold it and feel it in their hand. The medium also allows for artwork that digital media cannot. While digital music can have art attached to it, it cannot be interacted with in the same way as a vinyl record, which allow for creative canvases that really make each one unique. Vinyl has an advantage over digital music epistemically because the physical medium allows for a great deal of information to be advertised all over the record, inside and out, front and back.
    I certainly agree with everything the article states regarding the visual, tactile, and epistemic advantages of vinyl. However, while vinyl of course has its own unique and, in my opinion, superior sound, could it not be said that the digital format has allowed for a greater breadth of sounds to be added to music that could not have existed if not for advances in technology that led to digital music. Could it be that certain genres are best played on vinyl? Absolutely. However, music has evolved with the mediums of its time. Would vinyl be the most suitable method to listen to a screamo or heavy metal album, which is best listened to at a high volume rather than in the more casual setting associated with vinyl listening? Consider dubstep, a genre that I am not particularly fond of but that millions are fond of. The sounds of dubstep necessitate the use of a computer and digital audio equipment, followed by a great deal of synthetic changes to the original sound. Would it not follow that if one favors a digitally synthesized sound, it would be best listened to in a digital format? While listening to The Beatles or Bob Dylan on vinyl is most likely the best way to indulge in their work, I feel that it is likely that more modern genres may be better listened to on modern platforms.


  12. In this article, you explain why you believe vinyl records are superior to digitally recorded formats. You argue this through the use of four “vinyl conditions”: auditory, tactile, visual, and epistemic. You explain that vinyl offers a better quality of music because of its warmth, richness, and depth. It is more enjoyable to own vinyl because its tactility allows one to physically interact with his or her favorite albums. A vinyl record is usually decorated in a way that is specific to that band or album, thereby making it more visually pleasing and engaging than digitally formatted music. The band information, as well as all the different companies that were a part of making the album, is included on the actual vinyl itself making it more epistemic because this information is right at one’s fingertips.

    I do not know much about vinyl records, so I cannot really offer personal feedback that would challenge your stance. I do agree that owning vinyl would be more visually pleasing, and I can see why those who are passionate about vinyl enjoy the physicality of it; however, for a person who is not as enthusiastic about this kind of stuff, the lengths one must go to to store and maintain upkeep of the vinyl might seem like more of a burden than enjoyable. One can also only listen to vinyl wherever the required machine to play a record is, thus making it more inconvenient than digitally recorded formats that can be listened to anywhere. I do agree that vinyl is more epistemic; the likelihood of people taking the time to look up the information about digital formats is less likely than one simply reading what is on the vinyl in his or her hand. I cannot comment on the sound quality difference because I have only listened to vinyl very few times. Overall, I think you made a very sound argument. There are positives and negatives to both formats of music. I am honestly more intrigued to listen to vinyl now.

    C. Sullinger


  13. In this article, the author describes why vinyl is better than digital. The article includes four arguments: auditory, tactile, visual, and epistemic. The auditory argument discusses how vinyl includes sound elements such as warmth, richness, and depth that digital music simply cannot capture. The tactile argument discusses the advantages that a physical object can offer with respect to aesthetic qualities. The visual argument discusses that vinyl can also allow for more artwork which allows for more creativity with the work. The epistemic argument describes how having a physical object allows for more information to be included. The author uses these four arguments to support his claim that vinyl is better than digital.
    So is vinyl better than digital? Well there are advantages to digital music. Vinyl can take up more space while you can have thousands of digital songs in a small, portable device. There also is more ease with acquiring digital music as it can be one click away; vinyl requires more effort to get. For the average music listener, digital is clearly the way to go as it is far more convenient and simple. But if one wants to truly experience music in a more profound way, they must use vinyl. The author expressed in this article different aspects of vinyl such as sound quality and art that simply cannot and will never be captured in a digital file. Those passionate about music will want to display their records as they are a form of art unlike digital music. In addition, the sound quality is unmatched. Listening to vinyl does not compare to digital music; there are so many qualities of vinyl sound that digital will never capture. In conclusion, while there are certainty advantages to listening to digital music, true music lovers should listen to and collect vinyl.

    Kayla Bloom


  14. In this article, you’re basically weighing the pros and cons to having technological forms of media or physical. The examples portrayed are that in forms of music, either on vinyl or a digital platform like Spotify. You categorize vinyl records into Auditory, Tactile, Visual, and Epistemic features. In auditory, you highlight the warmth, richness, and depth factors that physical records provide in terms of sound. For Tactile, you highlight how a record has physicality to it and how having something to hold and touch has a better aesthetic to it. For Visual, it is highlighted that the visual appeal to a record is like “artwork” and can set the mood from color and shape. Then lastly, for Epistemic, you showcase the knowledge from seeing titles and words on the cover or record itself. In conclusion, your argument states that all of the aspects of the record give a different viewpoint to music that digital forms can’t.
    I can understand where you are getting this viewpoint from, and I agree with the fact of records having a different aesthetic than digital. However, it all comes down to the music itself. Having something physical to hold gives you a different feel right off the bat, however if the album itself sucks then the entire listening experience is pointless. I for one, listen to albums on Spotify that can make me feel 20 different emotions at once. The overwhelming feeling of euphoria can be accessed on any type of platform. I also find the feeling of listening with headphones to be better than listening on a stereo. By having the music going directly into my ears, I have a stronger feeling a connection to it than if it was just playing in the background. Therefore, I think that you have a very strong point that many people will agree with completely. I just have a personal preference to digital listening than physical.


  15. Spin me round is an article about the differences between vinyl and digital forms of music. In this article, you talk about the differences between the two types of music and compare and contrast them. You lay out an argument for why you feel that vinyl is superior to digital music in multiple ways. These ways are tactile, visual, and epistemic features that vinyl has and digit lacks. To analyze how vinyl is better you go over the qualities that vinyl music has which are warmth, richness, and depth. Your argument here is that vinyl is a physical form of music so it increases the aspects of warmth, richness and depth due to the physical attributes of the record. The next part of the article talks about the tactile features of vinyl compared to digital. You talk here about what makes up a vinyl record. These attributes include the poly bag, jacket, spine, inner sleeve, inserts, labels and inscriptions. Your argument for this section is that the physical tactile experience one has with records cannot be replaced by the digital format. The physical experience is an important part of owning a record. The next section is about the visual features of the album which are the cover art and the vinyl art itself. Lastly you discuss the epistemic features that come with a record. These include lyrics, band factoids, and studio information.

    I consume my music a lot like people that like analog music do. I normally listen to music around my house with a speaker or in my car. My father has a vinyl collection that he occasionally listens to. I think I’m on the fence with your argument. On one hand I consume my music in a way that people that like analog music do. On the other hand I think there are some benefits of digital music that are just too convenient to dismiss. First off, I can see the pros of listening to vinyl records, and the benefits of analog music. I like owning physical copies of all my favorite albums. I like being able to leave a CD in my car that i can reliably enjoy and comeback to. The benefits of having a collection is a tactile feature that I agree with. There isn’t the same level of satisfaction looking at a digital collection of music as there is looking at a collection of physical albums or CD’s. While CD’s don’t have as many features as vinyl, the do offer most of the same benefits. I love the album art. While you can see album art on digital music, physical copies have the luxury of having both a front and back cover to work with. They can also pint art on the inside or even the CD or record. I enjoy the creativity this allows the artist. I have a CD entitled “Plagues” that has one continuous cover on the front and back and then the CD inside has art that coincides with the outside cover. You miss out on this benefit when you buy digital music. On the other hand, I’m not sure i can agree with your argument that vinyl sounds all that much better. I have not listened to a record in a long time. That being said, I believe that with a good speaker the difference in sound quality is minor. I want to talk about the benefits of digital music before i give my final opinion. Digital music offers a convenience that analog music can’t. It offers portability and variety. A digital collection is much easier to take with you than an analog collection. There is also the option of variety. It is very convenient to load up Spotify and be able to choose a song from any artist at any time. Now there is the fear that a song or artist can disappear from these streaming sites without warning. This is a argument for why I think owning a collection of my favorite music is important. The other big pro of digital music is the cost. It is expensive to buy vinyl records and make a collection. Because of this cost, it becomes hard to experiment and try new artists in a way that someone that listens to music digitally can. This cost I believe is the one reason why I choose to consume my music digitally over an analog style. I like a lot of the appeal that comes with owning a vinyl collection. I can see the benefit of having a collection because I have a small CD collection. I do not think it is possible to justify the expense of going vinyl when digit music offers so much more variety and ability to explore genres. I think the best way to consume music is to listen and explore all sorts of music digitally. Then when you have some favorites, buy a physical collection of the music you like. Records offer a unique sound quality, but I think they will always be a niche instead of the norm no matter how good they sound.


  16. In this article, it is argued that the vinyl format is better than digital formats. The first argument for the case of “the vinyl condition” is the fact that it has such a rich sound to it that you cannot get from the digital format. Although as I read further into the article it is clear that this isn’t the only upside to the vinyl condition. There is a basic description of the three other features of vinyl condition then laid out including; tactile, visual, and epistemic. Then we go into more detail of the tactile features, talking about the fact that vinyl offers this aspect of physical engagement as part of the aesthetic experience. I think the visual aspects of this argument are quite clear. These covers have beautiful pieces of art on them, including some that become timeless images to our culture. Last but not least we talk about the epistemic features, and in a broad sense, this talks about knowledge and the information that these vinyls include.
    Although I have never listened to vinyl myself, I can remember the days of CD’s. Even though these CDs were digital there was a physical process of getting and listening to these CDs. I remember the excitement that was the process of buying a CD. The moments in the car to the store where you imaged how you would feel listening to it, the first time you saw the art on the cover at the store. Then when you finally got to pick it up and pay for it you just got even more excited that, wow, you finally get to listen. I can’t personally say that vinyl is better than digital, but with the experience it provides, I sure feel like I would want to get to know a little better.

    Gina A.


  17. In this piece, you argue that vinyl records are preferred over digital formats because the sound is more enhancing, and they offer a large number of features. Throughout this piece, you describe four key features that are available in vinyl records but are not available in digital formats. One of the features that occurs from the vinyl condition is the auditory feature. It was stated that you believe that the sound quality of vinyl is better quality compared to digital formats because vinyl records are material objects, thus causing the warmth, richness and depth of the music to be heightened. The second feature that you mentioned were the tactile features. You mentioned that records are physical objects, so they take up particular space and time. It was also stated that the tactility of vinyl offers physical engagement as part of the experience, causing the record to not only be owned and heart, but to be felt too. The tactility of vinyl is an important aspect because it allows for the other three features to arise. The third feature of the vinyl condition that you outline are the visual features. On the jacket of the vinyl, there are many different types of artwork. The label and inserts are also a way that artists can express their artwork. The final feature that you express are the epistemic features. These features revolve around the idea of knowledge and why the specific vinyl is needed. This information consists of the artist, producer, date recorded, recording studio, plus other specific information. This is a very important feature because having more information causes an understanding of the specific piece of art.

    I have enjoyed reading this piece. I have personally never listened to a record, but I enjoyed learning more about the topic. I do agree with you that vinyl records are superior to digital features, but only in some respects. I agree with you that the auditory aspect of vinyl is superior. I feel that the sound would be better due to the general makeup of the record itself. It is not just a piece of technology, but rather it is an uniquely designed object used to make the music more enriching. I also agree with your point that the epistemic features of a vinyl are important because it helps the listener to further understand the art behind the specific piece of music. However, I disagree about the tactile aspect. I like the idea of a record being physically engaging, but I feel that so much work goes into making sure the record is in good condition and is handled with care. This idea of having to use such a large amount of care when handling vinyl records pushes me away from using them. I also feel that in today’s society, so many people use technology. Sometimes it is more convenient to use the digital formats of music. I also disagree with you about the visual aspect. I feel that in today’s society, artists can still express their work on merchandise that they are sell. I also feel that by wearing a specific T-shirt with an artist’s name and other information about them, it helps others to find out about their music by being a walking advertisement. While reading this piece of work, I feel that you explained each point very well and made it clear to the reader. I really enjoyed reading this and I am interested in listening to a record in the future.

    Grace Margita


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